Political and institutional system
The constitutional political system of the Principality of Andorra is that of a parliamentary co-principality. In plainer terms this means that the Principality of Andorra is an internationally recognized constitutional state, governed by a parliament ("The General Council"), an executive government and two co-princes who together are the indivisible head of state of the Principality of Andorra.
As an explanation of this particular historical legal structure which is specific to the institutional system of the Principality of Andorra we here copy the whole of articles 43.2 and 44.1 of the Constitution of the Principality of Andorra which was adopted by referendum on 14 March 1993:
Article 43.2: The Co-princes, an institution deriving from the Pareatges and their historical development, are solely in their persons the Bishop of Urgell and the President of the French Republic. Their powers, which derive from this Constitution, are equal. Each of them swears or promises to exercise his office in accordance with this Constitution.
Article 44.1: The Co-princes are the symbol and the guarantee of the permanence and continuity of Andorra and of its independence and the upholding of the traditional spirit of parity and balance in relations with the neighbouring states. They declare the agreement of the Andorran state when entering into international undertakings in accordance with this Constitution.
At international level the Principality of Andorra has been a member of the United Nations since 1993 and of the Council of Europe since 1994. In June 1990 the Principality of Andorra and the European Community signed an agreement on a partial customs union which has been in force since July 1991.
� CSA Andorran Solicitors (lawyers)